The physics of running red lights

It’s the Christmas silly season and newspapers are again rounding on cyclists (aka ‘lycra louts’) for running red lights and putting other road users at risk. Never mind the lack of any hard evidence of injuries or deaths caused by cyclists running red lights, it’s a story that appears to please news and online editors, such as at the Sunday Times yesterday and The Times today.

To borrow a memorable phrase from Peter Mandelson, I am intensely relaxed about cyclists running red lights, where it is safe to do so, i.e. when there is no obstruction caused to anyone using the junction who has priority at the time. Josh Hart has a great blog post on the subject.

Josh says it’s important not to confuse safe behaviour with law-abiding behaviour. “You can follow every law and still put yourself in a terribly dangerous position (i.e. in the door zone). By the same token, you can slow and look around carefully at red lights and stop signs and proceed when no one is coming and you’ll likely never get into trouble. Blindly following the law is a recipe for getting hurt on your bike. Better to trust your own hearing, sight, and instincts than the government’s rigid idea of ‘health and safety’.”

There’s some evidence to suggest that cyclists stopping at traffic lights on the left hand side make themselves more vulnerable to getting squashed by lorries and HGVs/LGVs that find it hard to see a cyclists in that position. This may explain why London Mayor Boris Johnson is considering allowing cyclists to turn left on red as well as riding the ‘wrong’ way down one-way streets as is already the practice in Brussels, among many other cities.

This would go some way towards addressing the second plank of Josh’s argument, that the Highway Code is inappropriate for cyclists. He say’s “unfortunately we live in a society where the needs of one class of road user are prioritised at the expense of more vulnerable road users.”

Buffalo Bill made the same point long ago on The Bike Show when he said that traffic rules were only needed to address the problem of automobiles on the roads, not cyclists, and therefore the rules should not apply to cyclists in the same way. As Josh argues, “The bicycle is a kind of a hybrid animal– somewhere between a pedestrian and a vehicle, and we need to treat it as such… Let’s stop trying to fit the round peg of cycling into the square hole of overly regimented traffic regulations.” Amen to that.

But before anyone accuses me of encouraging a free-for-all at red lights I strongly believe that to run a red light safely you need to have all your senses about you. You need to be looking hard enough to see that there’s no danger. You need to give way to pedestrians who have priority and anticipate those that have not yet stepped off the pavement. Setting traps to catch cyclists running red lights is so obviously an instance of wasting police time, though there is one small respect in which I do approve of Fixed Penalty Notices for red light jumping: If you don’t see the rozzer who nicks you, you weren’t looking hard enough to be safe running the red light, were you? So pay up and consider it a £30 lesson in cycle training. Sometimes when I’m cycling I can’t really be bothered with the effort involved in running red lights so I am quite happy to stop and wait, assuming there’s no potentially left-turning lorry looming over me.

What never seems to be discussed in the whole debate on red lights is why cyclists feel such a strong urge to run red lights, why it makes so much sense for us to do it. Those who write about it invariably ascribe it to the perceived arrogance and smugness of the cyclist, an expression of their innate sentiments of self-satisfaction and superiority. I feel a lot of things when riding the streets of London but superiority is rarely one of them. Certainly not when it’s pouring with rain and another bus has whistled past within a few inches of me, accompanied by a billowing cloud of filth and spray.

Cyclists run red lights not because we consider ourselves to be supreme beings but because of the forces of physics. The nature of the bicycle is that we have to use our own energy to move. Getting going is not simply a matter of disengaging the clutch with the left foot and easing the right foot onto the accelerator. When cyclists stop we have to give up all the kinetic energy we’ve built up and when we start again we have to overcome the inertia of our own body masss and that of the bicycle, the road resistance, wind, and so on. Cyclists running red lights are like people walking in a park who walk in the direction of where they want to go rather than following the paved paths. If enough of them are doing it, the result is a muddy rut in the grass. We don’t blame the walkers, we blame the planner who didn’t think about desire lines when making the paved paths.

It’s my sense that running red lights is much less about saving time than saving energy. A cyclist who runs red lights generally doesn’t save much time because she’ll usually end up stopping at a major junction at which point a law-abiding cyclist will have caught up, or nearly caught up. The vital point is that the red light running cyclist will have expended much less energy. And this is important. Cycling can be hard work, and the perception of effort puts a lot of people off riding bikes. The easier it is, the more people are likely to take it up. (By the same token, all those roadies who use their daily commutes to work out as a form of training, should perhaps reconsider their red light running, since stopping means they use more energy and therefore get a better workout. The expenditure of energy to get up to cruising speed might be considered as a form of interval training.)

All this is just my intuition based on my own experiences of cycling. I’d really like to find a physicist or an engineer who would be able to properly quantify the time loss and the energy loss involved in stopping at red lights. I think the results would be interesting and would help illiuminate the debate. The implications might go beyond the debate on red light running and could be useful for transport planners who, if you ask me, should be working hard to design routes for cyclists that minimise the amount of stopping that’s required. If you’re a physicist or an engineer who could apply your knowledge to these questions, please get in touch.

Podcasts on the radio

I love listening to the radio. And I love podcasts because they mean I can listen to my favourite radio programmes from around the world whenever I want, plus the growing number of high quality podcasts that are not radio programmes, like Philosophy Bites, Ruby’s Chicky Boilups and the Hackney Podcast. I’ve recently made a fantastic discovery that is allowing me to listen to podcasts on the radio. Continue reading

Radiocycle

antennaThe Bike Show emerges from its late spring hibernation into the bright sunlight of the summer season. This week’s show features a ride south from the Resonance FM studio to the southern limit of the station’s 5km FM broadcast signal at the Herne Hill Velodrome. With guests James Wilson, lecturer in radio at Glasgow Metropolitan College and Ed Baxter, programming director of Resonance FM.

Play on links below. Other file formats (e.g. Ogg Vorbis).

Photo credit: Ben McCloud / Flickr / Creative Commons

4 February 2008: Reclaim the Street(maps)

Open Street Map v London Cycle NetworkPrivate companies and revenue-hungry government agencies have always had a stranglehold on the world’s best maps, until the arrival of Open Street Map, a volunteer-driven effort akin to Wikipedia for mapping and cartography. OSM offers endless customisation possibilities, is entirely open source and in many parts of the world is rivaling the best online and paper maps. OSM’er Andy Allan explains how he’s been adding information relevant to cyclists and explains how anyone can contribute to the project. George Coulouris and Jean Dollimore give a guided tour of Camden Cyclists’ collaborative online cycle route planning tool.

Date for the diary:

Bicycology evening of bike films, vegan pancakes and discussion of plans for a cooperative bike workshop and ‘radical bike group’.
Wednesday 6 February, 7.30pm
L.A.R.C (London Action Resource Centre)
62 Fieldgate Street, London E1

MP3 | Other file formats (e.g. Ogg Vorbis)

29 January 2007: Going the Distance and the Physics of the Bicycle

First run in 1891 as a race designed to demonstrate the practicality of the bicycle, Paris Brest Paris has since become a four yearly event that attracts long distance cyclists from around the world. This year is a Paris Brest Paris year and Kieron Yates – this week standing in for Jack Thurston – talks to Richard Phipps of Audax UK, the British long distance cycling association, about preparing for the ride and what to expect should he make it to Paris.

Also on today’s show Kieron tries to discover just how it is that we stay upright on our bikes as we pootle off down the road. Physicist, Dr Helen Czerski, provides the answers, describes the ‘Einstein flip‘, and confirms the efficiency of the bicycle. Helen is a member of the NOISE network of scientists.

MP3 Download

Ogg Vorbis Download

20 November 2006: Experimental music and the bicycle

It’s cold outside, so stay at home and turn your bicycle into a musical instrument! Featuring performances by Stephen Schweitzer’s
Bikelophone
(pictured left), electro-acoustic composer David Berezan and the Tea and Toast Band.

And we set a new challenge for London’s musical cyclists in 2007, the year that the Tour de France comes to our city… A performance of Godfried-Willem Raes’s Second Symphony for ‘Singing Bicycles’.

MP3 Download

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